The Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, but also non-member States have tried to come to an agreement on protocol since 1995, which would agree the rules for the use of genetic technologies, the treatment of genetically modified organisms and in particular the way they trade within member and non-members of the Convention.
The Cartagena Protocol was approved on 29 January 2000 in Montreal, opened for signature from 15 to 26 May 2000 at the UN Office in Nairobi and from 5 June 2000 to 4 June 2001 at UN Headquarters in New York. All this at a time when the Slovak Republic was the presidency of the Convention. Cartagena Protocol entered into international force on 11 September 2003 after it had been ratified by the fiftieth member country/state of the Convention; Slovak Republic deposited instruments of ratification at the UN headquarters in New York, USA, as the seventy-fifth state and the ninetieth day after the deposit of instruments of ratification on 22 February 2004 Protocol entered into force for Slovakia.
The provisions of the Cartagena Protocol regulate the handling with GMOs and their products in interstate transportation, but also in domestic use, if it affects or may affect beyond the state borders. One scope of the Protocol is the organization of mutual information to member countries about all relevant facts relating to genetically modified organisms. Particular attention is given to the use of foods containing genetically modified ingredients and by transboundery shipments they must be labeled separately.
At the first meeting of the Parties to the Protocol (COP-MOP1), States commit themselves to begin the process of developing international rules and procedures on liability and redress for damage resulting from transboundary movements of living modified organisms on the basis of Art. 27. On 15 October 2010, at the end of the fifth meeting of Parties in Nagoya, Japan, was formally adopted a protocol on liability and damages to the Cartagena Protocol, called Nagoya-Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (hereinafter referred to as "Supplementary Protocol"). The Supplementary Protocol will be opened for signature by the Parties in the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 7 March 2011 to 6 March 2012. The Supplementary Protocol is the first multilateral environmental agreement, which defines damage to biodiversity.
The Supplementary Protocol provides by determining liability and compensation for damages as an administrative approach, civil approach as well, that already exists in national legal systems of the Parties, or allows to apply or develop civil liability procedures specific to damage resulting from transboundary movements of living genetically modified organisms. It is expected that this flexible approach will facilitate rapid signature and subsequent ratification and entry into force of the Supplementary Protocol. The European Union signed the Supplementary Protocol on 11 May 2011.
To implement the Cartagena Protocol there was adopted the Act No. 151/2002 Coll. on the use of genetic technologies and genetically modified organisms, as amended. European Community as a Party to the Cartagena Protocol adopted for its implementation Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EC) No. 1946/2003 of 15 July 2003 on transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms.
The official website of the Cartagena Protocol and of the Supplementary Protocol http://bch.cbd.int/protocol/
Text of the Cartagena Protocol published in the Collection - Announcement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak republic No. 82/2004 Coll.
Biosafety Clearing-House http://bch.cbd.int/ - Centre for the exchange of information on living modified organisms under the Cartagena Protocol based